部署hugo到服务器,网上一般方法是利用git hook。这里记录一种新的方法:利用FTP Deploy GitHub Actions自动部署hugo到Centos8服务器。今后只要提交源码到github仓库,剩下的事就交给GitHub Actions了。

本地操作

参考:hugo部署到coding&gitee&备份源码-本地操作

服务器操作

安装 Nginx

准备工作:如果服务器端口不是22,先要更改SSH端口:

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vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config
port 22

然后重启生效。

首先,在服务器上安装nginx

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yum update -y
yum install nginx -y

如果是centos 7,先要安装安装epel:yum install epel-release,才能安装nginx。

启动 Nginx

Nginx 安装完成后需要手动启动,启动Nginx并设置开机自启:

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systemctl start nginx
systemctl enable nginx

关闭防火墙:

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systemctl stop firewalld.service
systemctl disable firewalld.service

配置完成后,访问使用浏览器服务器 ip ,如果能看到以下界面,表示运行成功。

创建新的网站目录

为了图方便,可以直接将网站目录改为FTP家目录。

为了方便期间,我们在 /var/www/ 目录下为每个站点创建一个文件夹。

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sudo mkdir -p /var/www/blog
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/blog
sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www
  • 解决Nginx出现403 forbidden

如果后面利用FTP上传网页后,出现403 Forbidden,解决方法:

假设网站根目录在/var/www/blog/,则执行:

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chmod -R 777 /var/www

配置 nginx

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vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/blog.conf
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server {
listen 80 ;
listen [::]:80;
root /var/www/blog;
server_name bore.vip www.bore.vip;
access_log /var/log/nginx/hexo_access.log;
error_log /var/log/nginx/hexo_error.log;
error_page 404 = /404.html;
location ~* ^.+\.(ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png)$ {
root /var/www/blog;
access_log off;
expires 1d;
}
location ~* ^.+\.(css|js|txt|xml|swf|wav)$ {
root /var/www/blog;
access_log off;
expires 10m;
}
location / {
root /var/www/blog;
if (-f $request_filename) {
rewrite ^/(.*)$ /$1 break;
}
}
location /nginx_status {
stub_status on;
access_log off;
}
}

重启 Nginx 服务器,使服务器设定生效:

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sudo systemctl restart nginx

配置ssl证书

更多查看:Nginx 配置 ssl 证书

这里记下怎样添加 Let’s Encrypt 免费证书。(貌似只有上传了文件到网站目录,才能申请证书成功。)如果想启用阿里证书,可查看:启用阿里免费证书

安装Certbot

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yum install epel-release -y
yum install certbot -y

然后执行:

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certbot certonly --webroot -w /var/www/blog -d bore.vip -m 455343442@qq.com --agree-tos

配置Nginx

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vi /etc/nginx/conf.d/blog.conf
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server {
listen 80;
server_name bore.vip www.bore.vip;
rewrite ^(.*)$ https://$server_name$1 permanent;
}
server {
listen 443;
root /var/www/blog;
server_name bore.vip www.bore.vip;
ssl on;
ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/bore.vip/fullchain.pem;
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/bore.vip/privkey.pem;
ssl_session_timeout 5m;
ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_ciphers ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
access_log /var/log/nginx/hexo_access.log;
error_log /var/log/nginx/hexo_error.log;
error_page 404 = /404.html;
location ~* ^.+\.(ico|gif|jpg|jpeg|png)$ {
root /var/www/blog;
access_log off;
expires 1d;
}
location ~* ^.+\.(css|js|txt|xml|swf|wav)$ {
root /var/www/blog;
access_log off;
expires 10m;
}
location / {
root /var/www/blog;
if (-f $request_filename) {
rewrite ^/(.*)$ /$1 break;
}
}
location /nginx_status {
stub_status on;
access_log off;
}
}

重启Nginx生效:

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systemctl restart nginx

证书自动更新

由于这个证书的时效只有 90 天,我们需要设置自动更新的功能,帮我们自动更新证书的时效。首先先在命令行模拟证书更新:

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certbot renew --dry-run

模拟更新成功的效果如下(略)

在无法确认你的 nginx 配置是否正确时,一定要运行模拟更新命令,确保certbot和服务器通讯正常。使用 crontab -e 的命令来启用自动任务,命令行:

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crontab -e

添加配置:(每隔两个月凌晨2:30自动执行证书更新操作)后保存退出。

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查看证书有效期的命令:

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openssl x509 -noout -dates -in /etc/letsencrypt/live/bore.vip/cert.pem

安装vsftpd

Debian查看:Debian安装vsftpd,Centos参考下面的。

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sudo yum install vsftpd -y

安装软件包后,启动vsftpd,并使其能够在引导时自动启动:

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sudo systemctl start vsftpd
sudo systemctl enable vsftpd

配置vsftpd

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vi /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

userlist_enable=YES下面,加上:

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userlist_file=/etc/vsftpd/user_list
userlist_deny=NO

创建FTP用户

创建一个新用户,名为admin:

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sudo adduser admin
sudo passwd admin

将用户添加到允许的FTP用户列表中:

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echo "admin" | sudo tee -a /etc/vsftpd/user_list

设置正确的权限(使ftp用户可以上传网站文件到相应目录):

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sudo chmod 755 /var/www/blog
sudo chown -R admin: /var/www/blog

关闭防火墙

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systemctl stop firewalld.service
systemctl disable firewalld.service

重启vsftpd服务

保存文件并重新启动vsftpd服务,以使更改生效:

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sudo systemctl restart vsftpd

更多有关ftp部分可查看:centos8搭建ftp服务器

允许root登录FTP

  1. root添加到允许的FTP用户列表中:
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echo "root" | sudo tee -a /etc/vsftpd/user_list
  1. 修改/etc/vsftpd/user_list和/etc/vsftpd/ftpusers两个设置文件脚本,将root账户前加上#号变为注释(使

root账户从禁止登录的用户列表中排除)。

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vi /etc/vsftpd/user_list
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vi /etc/vsftpd/ftpusers
  1. 重启vsftpd服务
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    sudo systemctl restart vsftpd

    Github操作

配置FTP_MIRROR_PASSWORD

点击博客仓库的Settings->Secrets->Add a new secret,Name填写FTP_MIRROR_PASSWORD,Value填写用户密码。

配置 Github actions

在博客根目录新建.github/workflows/gh_pages.yml文件。代码(不添加缓存)如下:最好使用下面添加了缓存的。

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name: GitHub Page Deploy

on:
push:
branches:
- develop
jobs:
build-deploy:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
steps:
- name: Checkout master
uses: actions/checkout@v2.3.4
with:
submodules: true # Fetch Hugo themes (true OR recursive)
fetch-depth: 0 # Fetch all history for .GitInfo and .Lastmod
- name: Setup Hugo
uses: peaceiris/actions-hugo@v2.5.0
with:
hugo-version: 'latest'
extended: true

- name: Build Hugo
run: hugo --minify

- name: Deploy Hugo to gh-pages
uses: peaceiris/actions-gh-pages@v3.8.0
with:
github_token: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
PUBLISH_BRANCH: master
PUBLISH_DIR: ./public
# cname:

- name: Deploy Hugo to Server
uses: SamKirkland/FTP-Deploy-Action@4.2.0
with:
server: 104.224.191.88
username: admin
password: ${{ secrets.FTP_MIRROR_PASSWORD }}
local-dir: ./public/
server-dir: /var/www/blog/

添加缓存:

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name: GitHub Page Deploy

on:
push:
branches:
- develop
jobs:
build-deploy:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
steps:
- name: Checkout master
uses: actions/checkout@v2.3.4
with:
submodules: true # Fetch Hugo themes (true OR recursive)
fetch-depth: 0 # Fetch all history for .GitInfo and .Lastmod
- name: Setup Hugo
uses: peaceiris/actions-hugo@v2.5.0
with:
hugo-version: 'latest'
extended: true

- name: Cache resources # 缓存 resource 文件加快生成速度
uses: actions/cache@v2
with:
path: resources
# 检查照片文件变化
key: ${{ runner.os }}-hugocache-${{ hashFiles('content/**/*') }}
restore-keys: ${{ runner.os }}-hugocache-

- name: Build Hugo
run: hugo --minify --gc

- name: Deploy Hugo to gh-pages
uses: peaceiris/actions-gh-pages@v3.8.0
with:
github_token: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
PUBLISH_BRANCH: master
PUBLISH_DIR: ./public
# cname:

- name: Deploy Hugo to Server
uses: SamKirkland/FTP-Deploy-Action@4.3.0
with:
server: 104.224.191.88
username: root
password: ${{ secrets.FTP_MIRROR_PASSWORD }}
local-dir: ./public/
server-dir: /usr/share/nginx/html/

第三方:

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name: GitHub Page

on:
push:
branches:
- master # master 更新触发

jobs:
deploy:
runs-on: ubuntu-18.04
steps:
- uses: actions/checkout@v2
with:
submodules: true # clone submodules
fetch-depth: 0 # 克隆所有历史信息

- name: Setup Hugo
uses: peaceiris/actions-hugo@v2
with:
hugo-version: "0.87.0" # Hugo 版本
extended: true # hugo插件版 Stack主题 必须启用

- name: Cache resources # 缓存 resource 文件加快生成速度
uses: actions/cache@v2
with:
path: resources
# 检查照片文件变化
key: ${{ runner.os }}-hugocache-${{ hashFiles('content/**/*') }}
restore-keys: ${{ runner.os }}-hugocache-

- name: Build # 生成网页 删除无用 resource 文件 削减空行
run: hugo --minify --gc

- name: Deploy # 部署到 GitHub Page
uses: peaceiris/actions-gh-pages@v3
with:
# 如果在同一个仓库下使用请使用 github_token 并注释 deploy_key
# github_token: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
deploy_key: ${{ secrets.ACTIONS_DEPLOY_KEY }}

# 如果在同一个仓库请注释
external_repository: # 你的 GitHub page 仓库 example/example.github.io

publish_dir: ./public
user_name: "github-actions[bot]"
user_email: "github-actions[bot]@users.noreply.github.com"
full_commit_message: Deploy from ${{ github.repository }}@${{ github.sha }} 🚀

提交源码

初始化git,新建并切换到develop分支,将源码提交到develop分支。稍等片刻,github action会自动部署blog到master分支和服务器。

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git init
git checkout -b develop
git remote add origin git@github.com:iwyang/iwyang.github.io.git
git add .
git commit -m "备份源码"
git push --force origin develop

最终部署脚本:

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#!/bin/bash

echo -e "\033[0;32mDeploying updates to gitee...\033[0m"

# backup
git config --global core.autocrlf false
git add .
git commit -m "site backup"
git push origin develop --force

克隆源码到本地

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git clone -b develop git@github.com:iwyang/iwyang.github.io.git blog --recursive

因为使用Submodule管理主题,所以最后要加上 --recursive,因为使用 git clone 命令默认不会拉取项目中的子模块,你会发现主题文件是空的。(另外一种方法:git submodule init && git submodule update

同步更新源文件

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git pull origin develop

同步主题文件

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git submodule update --remote

运行此命令后, Git 将会自动进入子模块然后抓取并更新,更新后重新提交一遍,子模块新的跟踪信息便也会记录到仓库中。这样就保证仓库主题是最新的。

github、gitee、服务器三线部署hexo

将hexo三线部署(由于部署hexo较慢,如果单独为gitee建立一个workflows,gitee会先部署完成,这样无法同步;hugo可以单独为gitee建立一个workflows,因为hugo部署到服务器会先于部署到gitee):

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name: Hexo Deploy

# 只监听 source 分支的改动
on:
push:
branches:
- develop

# 自定义环境变量
env:
POST_ASSET_IMAGE_CDN: true

jobs:
build-and-deploy:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest

steps:
# 获取博客源码和主题
- name: Checkout
uses: actions/checkout@v2.3.4

- name: Checkout theme repo
uses: actions/checkout@v2.3.4
with:
repository: jerryc127/hexo-theme-butterfly
ref: master
path: themes/butterfly

# 这里用的是 Node.js 14.x
- name: Set up Node.js
uses: actions/setup-node@v2
with:
node-version: '14'

# 设置 yarn 缓存,npm 的话可以看 actions/cache@v2 的文档示例
- name: Get yarn cache directory path
id: yarn-cache-dir-path
run: echo "::set-output name=dir::$(yarn cache dir)"

- name: Use yarn cache
uses: actions/cache@v2.1.6
id: yarn-cache
with:
path: ${{ steps.yarn-cache-dir-path.outputs.dir }}
key: ${{ runner.os }}-yarn-${{ hashFiles('**/yarn.lock') }}
restore-keys: |
${{ runner.os }}-yarn-

# 安装依赖
- name: Install dependencies
run: |
yarn install --prefer-offline --frozen-lockfile

# 从之前设置的 secret 获取部署私钥
- name: Set up environment
env:
DEPLOY_KEY: ${{ secrets.DEPLOY_KEY }}
run: |
sudo timedatectl set-timezone "Asia/Shanghai"
mkdir -p ~/.ssh
echo "$DEPLOY_KEY" > ~/.ssh/id_rsa
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa
ssh-keyscan github.com >> ~/.ssh/known_hosts

# 生成并部署
- name: Deploy
run: |
npx hexo deploy --generate

- name: Deploy Hexo to Server
uses: SamKirkland/FTP-Deploy-Action@4.1.0
with:
server: 104.224.191.88
username: admin
password: ${{ secrets.FTP_MIRROR_PASSWORD }}
local-dir: ./public/
server-dir: /var/www/blog/

- name: Sync to Gitee
uses: wearerequired/git-mirror-action@master
env:
# 注意在 Settings->Secrets 配置 GITEE_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY
SSH_PRIVATE_KEY: ${{ secrets.GITEE_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY }}
with:
# 注意替换为你的 GitHub 源仓库地址
source-repo: git@github.com:iwyang/iwyang.github.io.git
# 注意替换为你的 Gitee 目标仓库地址
destination-repo: git@gitee.com:iwyang/iwyang.git

- name: Build Gitee Pages
uses: yanglbme/gitee-pages-action@main
with:
# 注意替换为你的 Gitee 用户名
gitee-username: iwyang
# 注意在 Settings->Secrets 配置 GITEE_PASSWORD
gitee-password: ${{ secrets.GITEE_PASSWORD }}
# 注意替换为你的 Gitee 仓库,仓库名严格区分大小写,请准确填写,否则会出错
gitee-repo: iwyang/iwyang
# 要部署的分支,默认是 master,若是其他分支,则需要指定(指定的分支必须存在)
branch: master

github、gitee、服务器三线部署hugo

由于部署到github和服务器先于gitee,所有可以建立两个workflows

  1. 根目录新建.github/workflows/deploy.yml(用于部署到github和服务器)
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name: GitHub Page Deploy

on:
push:
branches:
- develop
jobs:
build-deploy:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
steps:
- name: Checkout master
uses: actions/checkout@v2.3.4
with:
submodules: true # Fetch Hugo themes (true OR recursive)
fetch-depth: 0 # Fetch all history for .GitInfo and .Lastmod
- name: Setup Hugo
uses: peaceiris/actions-hugo@v2.5.0
with:
hugo-version: 'latest'
extended: true

- name: Build Hugo
run: hugo --minify

- name: Deploy Hugo to gh-pages
uses: peaceiris/actions-gh-pages@v3.8.0
with:
github_token: ${{ secrets.GITHUB_TOKEN }}
PUBLISH_BRANCH: master
PUBLISH_DIR: ./public
# cname:

- name: Deploy Hugo to Server
uses: SamKirkland/FTP-Deploy-Action@4.1.0
with:
server: 104.224.191.88
username: admin
password: ${{ secrets.FTP_MIRROR_PASSWORD }}
local-dir: ./public/
server-dir: /var/www/blog/
  1. 根目录新建.github/workflows/Sync to Gitee.yml(用于部署到gitee
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name: Sync to Gitee

on:
push:
branches: develop

jobs:
build:
runs-on: ubuntu-latest
steps:
- name: Sync to Gitee
uses: wearerequired/git-mirror-action@master
env:
# 注意在 Settings->Secrets 配置 GITEE_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY
SSH_PRIVATE_KEY: ${{ secrets.GITEE_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY }}
with:
# 注意替换为你的 GitHub 源仓库地址
source-repo: git@github.com:iwyang/iwyang.github.io.git
# 注意替换为你的 Gitee 目标仓库地址
destination-repo: git@gitee.com:iwyang/iwyang.git

- name: Build Gitee Pages
uses: yanglbme/gitee-pages-action@main
with:
# 注意替换为你的 Gitee 用户名
gitee-username: iwyang
# 注意在 Settings->Secrets 配置 GITEE_PASSWORD
gitee-password: ${{ secrets.GITEE_PASSWORD }}
# 注意替换为你的 Gitee 仓库,仓库名严格区分大小写,请准确填写,否则会出错
gitee-repo: iwyang/iwyang
# 要部署的分支,默认是 master,若是其他分支,则需要指定(指定的分支必须存在)
branch: master

解决问题

1.Error: FTPError: 550 Remove directory operation failed

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rm -rf /var/www/blog

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/blog
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/blog
sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www

sudo chmod 755 /var/www/blog
sudo chown -R admin: /var/www/blog

sudo systemctl restart vsftpd

参考链接

1.从 0 开始搭建 hexo 博客

2.为博客添加 Let’s Encrypt 免费证书

3.SamKirkland/FTP-Deploy-Action

4.vsftpd参数设置,并允许root账户登录ftp

5.Stack主题 + GitHub Action